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I am pleased to present the project report of Phase I of the Earthquake Response Cooperation Program for Energy Supply Systems. This program was based on the Earthquake Response Cooperation Initiative proposed by Chinese Taipei at APEC EWG 18.

Many APEC member economies are located in a region suffering from frequent earthquakes. In the past decades, several member economies such as China, Japan, Mexico, Chinese Taipei, the Philippines, Indonesia and the USA have experienced a series of severe earthquakes that resulted in serious damage to energy supply infrastructure and economic development, in addition to loss of life and property. In January 1995, a severe earthquake hit Kobe and Osaka, Japan. A large fire that subsequently resulted from leakage of natural gas caused tremendous damage.

In the early morning of September 21, 1999, an earthquake struck the central region of Chinese Taipei and resulted in tremendous destruction. Due to the collapse of transformer substations and several extra-high voltage electricity transmission towers, the electricity supply over half of Chinese Taipei was shut down for over one week. Furthermore, rotation of electricity supply lasted for another two weeks. Many other energy supply systems were seriously damaged, including natural gas pipelines, service stations and oil storage tanks. After this major disaster, Chinese Taipei realized that a crosseconomy cooperative mechanism for energy supply systems would benefit many APEC member economies. Chinese Taipei also hoped to share its valuable experiences with other member economies.

Therefore, in April 2000, the APEC EWG 19 endorsed the Earthquake Response Cooperation Initiative launched by Chinese Taipei to address earthquake preventative and response measures for energy supply systems, noting that the program development should consider the existing APEC framework for emergency preparedness. The initiative was also included in the APEC Energy Ministers Declaration on May 12, 2000. Taking the above into consideration, a 3-year Implementation ProgramˇX the Earthquake Response Cooperation Program for Energy Supply Systems ˇX was
developed to meet the objectives of the initiative.

Mainly, this program is to establish a cooperative and information sharing mechanism among the APEC member economies for energy supply systems in response to earthquakes. It is being accomplished by establishing a comprehensive information system on the Internet, by exchanging experiences of preventing collapse of energy supply systems during earthquakes, and by lessons from restoration efforts after earthquake.

This report is an important result of Phase I of this three-year program. Its contents include: energy security and earthquake disasters, past experience of energy supply system during earthquakes, earthquake risk assessment and management, earthquake preparedness for energy supply systems, and earthquake disaster countermeasures and response plans.

I sincerely appreciate the efforts of all those who have been involved in this project. The experts who have helped us through our conference and steering committee meeting, the domestic expert groups, and many others who have provided useful comments. I hope APEC member economies that suffer from earthquakes will benefit from this report.



Shih-Ming Chuang
Project Overseer
Earthquake Response Cooperation Program for Energy Supply Systems

Director, Energy Policy and International affairs Division
Energy Commission
Ministry of Economic Affairs
Chinese Taipei

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